Here is some miscellaneous info and links that I've found interesting. I'm posting them, partially so I'll review them again later, and partially for anyone who may also find this information helpful. As always, be careful when trying diet changes, supplements, etc. with these sensitive horses.
Mitochondrial Exhaustion, DMG, Pyruvate Conversion:
- Enhancement of Muscle Mitochondrial Function by Growth Hormone - 2008 (SEE ALSO MY POST Amino Acids, Growth Hormone, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Symptomatic PSSM Horses)
- Tying Up and Muscle Fatigue: "To contract the muscle, calcium is released in response to electrical stimulus from the nervous system. To relax the muscle, the mitochondria (the energy-producing centers in the cells) return the calcium to the small bodies where it is stored. When the mitochondria lose their ability to recycle the calcium, it begins to build up, leading to constant contraction."
- Pyruvate and Metabolic Flexibility: Illuminating a Path Toward Selective Cancer Therapies
- Pyruvic Acid on Science Direct: "Pyruvate is the precursor for alanine, where pyruvate is reductively converted to form l-alanine by alanine dehydrogenase, or by the transfer of the amino base to pyruvate by transaminase... Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA requires four vitamins: thiamine; pantothenic acid; riboflavin; and niacin. In contrast, in glycolysis, niacin is the only vitamin used...."
- The Health Professional's Guide to Dietary Supplements Pyruvate, B Complex Vitamins, Thiamine, and Muscle Fatigue
B Vitamins and Metabolic Syndromes:
- Vitamin B6 Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction, Insulin Resistance, and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Apoe−/− Mice Fed with High-Fat Diet "In summary, the results of this study have shown that low VitB6 status has substantial effects on metabolism including glucose and fatty acid. The results of this study also demonstrate that the deficiency of VitB6 might be a risk factor of NAFLD..."
- Associations between insulin resistance and three B-vitamins in European adolescents: the HELENA study "Adolescents with combined higher adiposity and higher HOMA insulin sensitivity showed lower vitamin B12 plasma concentrations. These differences do not seem to be explained by dietary vitamin B12 intake..."
B Vitamin Deficiencies and Neurological Disorders:
- Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease "B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level..."
- Nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone levels while maintaining a euthyroid state "These results suggest that nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone concentrations while maintaining a euthyroid state. This effect may be mediated through reduction in thyroxine-binding globulin, but other mechanisms may also be involved..."
- B vitamins and berries and age-related neurodegenerative disorders "The current research on B vitamins is largely inadequate to confidently assess their mechanisms of action on age-related neurocognitive disorders, their associations with disease, or their effectiveness as supplements. B vitamin supplementation may be of value for neurocognitive function, but the evidence is inconclusive..."
- Managing a Hot Horse from a Nutritional Perspective "A sugar-like carbohydrate, inositol is one of the lesser known B vitamins and also referred to as vitamin B8. Inositol is critical for messages sent between different cells, particularly those found in the brain and spinal tissues. The use of inositol oral supplementation has been proven highly effective in treating mental disorders in humans such as anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and depression without any known side effects. While not found frequently in equine calming supplements, this is certainly a nutraceutical that is gaining traction... The primary role of tryptophan in the body is as a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter produced by the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and helps digestive movements and clotting of the blood in the case of injury. Serotonin also helps contribute to an animal’s sense of satiation and, thereby, directly impacts behavior. If an animal is satiated by its resource availability, it has been shown that he will be more agreeable and less quarrelsome. Adequate tryptophan levels and, subsequently, serotonin levels help the animal determine that he does not have to “fight” as much for resources, resulting in a more amicable horse. When humans eating diets low in tryptophan were examined, the deficiency of tryptophan also correlated with lower serotonin levels and more aggressive and depressive behaviors."
Other Topics of Interest:
Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions - 2008
More research that I intend to add links/info to in the near future: Nrf2, Nrf2 MSM